Monday, August 31, 2009

Road-Names / Ainmneacha Bóithre

You can find out alot about Newry and Mourne road and street-names here. You will find the Irish language form for each and any other information which was gathered.

Thursday, August 27, 2009

More Surnames from Clonduff

I pulled this list from the Clonduff GAA website, it isn't bad at all, apart from the misreading of an 's' for an 'r' in Gaelic script with is very common, I have skipped the translations for now.

Remember, the Irish / Gaelic forms of names are almost alway the original form, they are not translations, not equivalent.

ANDERSON: If this is a native name, then it from the Irish Mac Giolla Aindréis
BRADY: Mac Brádaigh
BRANIGAN: Ó Branagáin
BROWN: de Brún (the brown) - Could also be Mac Giolla Dhuinn.
BURNS: Ó Broin
CAULFIELD: Mac Cathmhaoil
DOYLE: Ó Dubhghaill
FAGAN: Ó Faodhagáin
FITZPATRICK: Mac Giolla Phádraig (Note, in this case, Fitzpatrick is the original#)
GRANT: Mac Gránna
GREENAN: Ó Grianáin
GRIBBON: Mag Roibin (note in Down, the -ín diminutive ending is alway simply pronounced -in.
HANLON: Ó hAnnluain
McALINDON: Mac Giolla Fhionndáin (Note Lindon is also used to anglicise this name);
McAVOY: Mac Giolla Bhuide (could also be Mac Aodha Bhuí, more research needed.
McCONVILLE: Mac Conmhaoil
McGAW: Mag Ádaimh
McGEE: Mac Aoidh
McGINNIS: Mag Aonghais
McGILL: Mac an Ghoill
McGINN: Mag Fhinn
McGREEVY: Mag Riabhaigh
McLOUGHLIN: Mac Lochlainn
McPOLIN: Mac Póilin (note in Down, the -ín diminutive ending is alway simply pronounced -in. Note also that the McPolins formerly anglicised their name as (Mc)Poland before they caught themselves on.
MORGAN: Ó Muireagáin
MURNAN: Ó Murnáin
O'HAGAN: Ó hAgáin
O'HARE: Ó hÍr (Note Ó hÍr is pronounces approximately Ó Heersh)
WALLS: de Bháil
WILSON: Mac Liam (Mac Liam is a translation of Wilson, which is an English name. In Irish people simply pronounced Wulsana)

Monday, August 24, 2009

The second most important trait of Clonduff Irish - feil

Leid # 2, feil and fuil

The second most important distingushing feature of the Irish of Clonduff, and the wider Oirialla area is the use of 'feil' as opposed to 'fuil'

Most people who have studied Irish will remember the words, níl, and an bhfuil.

'Níl' is made up of the elements 'ní fhuil'. We have already seen that cha takes the place of ní in Down, but there is a little more to it.

In Down and Oirialla these forms are Chan fheil (often shortened to ' 'n'eil ' and 'a' bhfeil'

Therefore, 'is not' was chan fheil in Down as it was in Antrim, Omeath and South Armagh, and Scotland and Man as can be seen of the map.

'Chan fheil' is pronunced /han nʲel/ or /han nʲil/ approximately. The important thing is to remember that the n is pronounced slender as in 'Newry'.

'Bhfeil' differs from 'bhfuil' in that the 'bh' is slender, it is a 'v' sound, not a 'w' sound as in Donegal Irish. 'Bhfeil' is there pronounced /vʲel/ or /vʲil/ or even /vʲol/ approximately.

Note, the Irish of Meath and Tyrone / Derry employ 'fuil'.

It is also worth noting, that outwith the occasional usage in song, 'fuil' is not used in Ireland today apart from perhaps a tiny percentage of learners. Its usage however is not as frowned upon as the use of 'cha'.

Friday, August 21, 2009

Dinnseanchas - Scéal Chluain Daimh

Nuair a tháinig na manaigh Críosta chuige Cluain Daimh chuaigh siad i mbun oibre ag tógáil séipéil i mbaile fearainn a dtugtar Baile Uí Eacháin (Ballyaughain) air anois, i gceantar a thugann muid Sean-Chluain Daimh (‘Oul Clonduff’) air.

Ba ghnáth le damh teacht aníos as Gleann na bhFiadh, thuas sna Beanna Boirche, gach aon oíche chun an séipéal seo a leagain áfach, agus d’éiríodh leis ar feadh tamaill.

Deirtear gurb sean-draoi a raibh corraí air mar gheall air theacht an chreidimh úir a bhíodh a chur.

I ndiaidh tamall áfach, tharla sé gur éirigh le manach misneach óg an damh a thiomáil ar shiúil ón tséipéal. Thiomáil sé é thart fá leath mhíle i dtreo na sléibhte agus stop sé ansin, chuir sé a mhaide a bhí leis sa talamh is chuir sé cuireadh comhraic dhúshlánaigh roimhe leis an damh gan a theacht ar ais thar an áit a bhí an maide curtha aige choíche agus cha dtáinig an damh ar ais.

D’fhág an manach a mhaide mar chomhartha san áit ar chuir sé é sa talamh agus d’imigh sé leis. D’fhan an maide ansin ach chuir sé fréamh as agus d’fhás sé agus lean sé ag fás fríd na cianta.

Tá crann ag fás go seadh i lár goirt in áit a dtugtar Bushtown anois air agus creidtear gurb ionann an crann seo agus an maide a cuireadh ann míle bhliain go leath ó shín.


From The Irish language in Co. Down by Dr. Ciarán Ó Duibhín

On 11 March 1945, McPolin re James Cowan, farmer, Stang [Cluain Daimh], aged 60: ‘Traditional Irish: Cowan was able to repeat a number of phrases in Irish which his grandmother who knew the language taught him when he was a child, e.g. bless himself, count from one to ten, and such phrases as “shŏwitchshough”. At the same time he says his mother knew no Irish. She apparently was born about the transition period when parents did not wish their children to learn Irish. That would be about 1840-50 in this district. Cowan’s granny belonged to Drumboniff; she was born in the place where Barney Murnin now lives.’

What does “shŏwitchshough” mean and what can it tell us of the Gaelic dialect spoken in Clonduff? More than you might think. “shŏwitchshough” is clearly seo dhuit seo, 'here you are, there you go, here it is'.

What is interesting is that we can tell that the standard and Donegal form duit 'to you' was lenited (or aspirated) in the dialect - dhuit.

The phonetic spelling also seems to imply that this lenition had left the initial consonant very weak so that it seems to have been pronounced 'uit (witch) by this speaker.

Thursday, August 20, 2009

The Fundamental Trait of Clonduff Irish

It may surprise many to know that much is actually known about the Gaelic spoken in Cluain Daimh and County Down for at least two thousand years but sadly now lost.

Not as much as is known as is about the Irish of South Armagh and North Louth, as recording exist of these dialects and well as a considerable body of folklore and song, but a considerable amount can be gleamed from the evidence available nevertheless.

The fundamental aspect of Irish as spoken in Cluain Daimh, as opposed to theIrish taught in schools today is that the dialect of Cluain Daimh was a 'cha' /xa/ dialect.

That is to say that the negative particle was 'cha' rather than 'ní'.

For example, 'ní raibh mé' (I was not) was 'cha rabh mé' in Clonduff. As it would be everywhere above the line in the map opposite.

The evidence being that Cluain Daimh is above the line in the diagram, which is known as an isogloss.

That is not to say that 'cha' does not occur below the line, it does, but only in specific cases to denote emphasis, see the bibliography listed below.

It may be the case that 'cha' was used more extensively in Leinster than denoted by the diagram, but the evidence is lacking either way.

To find out more about how to use 'cha' click here.

'Cha' was traditionally never used anywhere in Ireland in literature as it was seen as a vulgarism, a stain it has never fully lost.

It is generally assumed that Ireland's official standard prohibits its use, this is however an urban myth, indeed it is to be found in the Standard Irish dictionary.

Its lack of promotion is simply due to the preferences of teachers and examination boards.

Its use is generally frowned upon by learners of Irish even in East Ulster today.

Féach chomh maith :

Ó Buachalla (Breandán): Ní and cha in Ulster Irish.
In Ériu 28 (1977), pp. 92–141.
1. Scottish Gaelic influence [on Ulster Ir.]; 2. O’Rahilly’s theory [cf. BILL II: 527]; 3. Present for future in Ulster Irish; 4. Present for future in Early Irish; 5. A reconstruction of the data; 6. An alternative interpretation [cha associated with ‘informal’ style in Ulster].

Ó Dochartaigh (Cathair): Cha and ní in the Irish of Ulster.
In Éigse 16/4 (Geimhreadh 1976), pp. 317–336.
Incl. sections on [1.] Areal distribution of the forms ní and cha; [2.] Transitional zone; [3.] Emphatic use of cha; [4.] Vowel quantity in cha; [5.] Diferential use of cha and ní; [6.] Origin and spread of cha.

Ó Buachalla (Breandán): Nótaí ar Ghaeilge an tuaiscirt I.
In Éigse 16/4 (Geimhreadh 1976), pp. 285–316.
On the use of ní and cha in Uster Irish.

Wagner (Heinrich): Iarfhocal ar ní agus cha sa Ghaeilge.
In FS de Bhaldraithe (1986), pp. 1–10.

Wednesday, August 19, 2009

Most common surnames in Clonduff in 1863-4

Surname, Households, Gaeilg

Murphy, 51, Mac Murchaidh (pron. A' Wurfee)
Morgan, 49, Ó Muireagáin
Fitzpatrick, 46, Mac Giolla Phádraig
O'Hagan, 43, Ó hÁgáin
McPoland, 35, Mac Póilín (pron. Mac Póilin)
Grant, 33, Mac Gránna
Branagan, 22, Ó Brannagáin
Fagan , 22, Ó Faogáin
Brady, 21, Mac Brádaigh
McGinn, 19, Mag Fhinn.

NOTE : In East Ulster 'Ó' is pron. as 'Á' and Mac (Mhac) as 'wac / vac' or even 'wa'

Bailte Fearainn Chluain Daimh / Clonduff Townland Names

Ballyaughian, Baile Uí Eachaín, "O'Haughian's townland"

Ballycoshone Lower, Ballycoshone Upper, Baile Cois Abhann "townland beside a river"

Ballygorian Beg, Baile Ó gCorraín Beag "Curreens'/Currans' townland (little)"

Ballygorian More, Baile Ó gCorraín Mór, "Curreens'/Currans' townland (great)"

Ballykeel, Baile Caol, "narrow townland"

Ballymaghery, Baile na Machaire, "townland of the plain"

Ballynagappoge, Baile na gCopóg, "townland of the dockens"

Ballynanny, Baile an Eanaigh, "townland of the marsh"

Ballyweely, Baile Mhaoile (?)"townland of the bare or round hill/summit"

Cabragh, An Chabrach, "rough/bad land (?)"

Carcullion, Carr an Chuilinn, "rugged place of the holly"

Cavan, Cabhán, "round/small hill (?)"

Cleomack, Of uncertain origin, - The Irish spelling Cliumac respects the sound and probably the meaning however.

Drumbonniff, Droim Banbh, "ridge of the suckling pigs"

Drumnascamph, Dromainn na Scamhthaí (?, "ridge/hillock of the bare patch of rocks"

Goward, Guthard (?), "resounding height"

Islandmoyle, An tOileán Maol, "the bare island"

Kinghill, Caomhchoill, "pleasant wood"

Leitrim, Liatroim, "grey ridge"

Lenish, Leithinis, "half-island/peninsula"

Leode, Leathfhód, (?), "sloping strip of ground"

Lisnamulligan, Lios Uí Mhaoileagáin, "Mulligan's fort"

Mullaghmore, An Mullach Mór, "the great top/summit"

Stang, An Stang, also Baile na Stainge, "the stang"

Tamary, Teamhraigh, "conspicious/elevated place"

Bain úsáid as do bhaile fearainn!